Tactile Paving: Thoughtful Design for Promoting Inclusive Public Spaces - 翻译中...
When walking across streets or boarding trains, you may notice small dome or circular stakes deliberately placed on the ground that are slightly raised. These indicators can be felt underfoot or with a cane and are a form of tactile paving. They are also known as surface indicators or detectable warning signs. A very common detectable warning sign uses a caution pattern, where rows of truncated domes form a grid pattern. Another popular pattern is a directional pattern, which uses rows of circular narrow bars or lines as indicators.
Tactile paving tiles convey navigation information to visually impaired pedestrians. When placed on a curb ramp, a detectable warning sign indicates the transition from the pedestrian route to the roadway, or provides a warning to pedestrians in front of stairs. Since they were introduced into the building world, accessibility and safety for pedestrians with limited or no vision have developed positively.
Tactile paving was first developed in Japan in 1965. It made its debut on a pedestrian crossing in Okayama City in 1967, and then spread to other pedestrian crossings throughout Japan. As it was adopted by the Japanese National Railway Company, its use rapidly increased. Shortly thereafter, the UK, Australia, and the USA began using tactile paving studs indicators in the early 1990s. Canada first incorporated them into transportation and then into other areas of the built environment in the early 2000s.
Over the years, as detectable warning surface has developed, various types of manufacturing materials have appeared. In the early days, only precast concrete models were available. On modern streets, cast iron, polyurethane, stainless steel, concrete, and ceramic are all selectable materials to use. Tactile paving studs must be durable enough to withstand busy pedestrian flows and environmental erosion and weathering. Cast iron is one of the most durable choices, known for its tough characteristics.
Tactile paving is regulated in the USA; the government, under the guidance of advocates and the U.S. Access Board, requires detectable paving in certain locations (such as at the end of a sidewalk or in front of a train platform). The U.S. Access Board is a federal agency that promotes accessibility design and standards for the built environment for people with disabilities.
Each state also has its own guidelines based on the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act, a federal law passed in 1968) and the ABA (Architectural Barriers Act). The ADA applies to facilities in the private sector and local government. For facilities designed or constructed using federal funds or leased by federal agencies, a similar design authority known as ABA applies. ABA is a civil rights law passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in all areas of public life. These two laws work together to ensure accessibility rights for people with disabilities.